Problem: Mitral Valve Regurgitation

Valve Regurgitation: When a Heart Valve Leaks

What is mitral valve regurgitation?

Regurgitation animation

Mitral regurgitation is leakage of blood backward through the mitral valve each time the left ventricle contracts.

Watch an animation of mitral valve regurgitation.

A leaking mitral valve allows blood to flow in two directions during the contraction. Some blood flows from the ventricle through the aortic valve — as it should — and some blood flows back into the atrium.

What is the problem that results from mitral regurgitation?

Leakage can increase blood volume and pressure in the area. The increased blood pressure in the left atrium can increase pressure in the veins leading from the lungs to the heart (pulmonary veins).

If regurgitation is severe, increased pressure may result in congestion (or fluid build-up) in the lungs.

What are the symptoms of mitral valve regurgitation? 

Mild mitral regurgitation may not have any symptoms.

When regurgitation is more severe, a person may have palpitations, especially when lying on the left side.

If regurgitation is severe enough, the heart may enlarge to maintain forward flow of blood, causing heart failure (when the heart does not pump enough blood to the body). This may produce symptoms ranging from shortness of breath during exertion, coughing, congestion around the heart and lungs, swelling of the legs and feet.

What conditions may be related to mitral regurgitation?

The left atrium tends to enlarge due to the extra blood volume leaking back from the ventricle. An enlarged atrium may develop a rapid and disorganized movement (a disorder called atrial fibrillation), which reduces the heart’s ability to pump efficiently.

A fibrillating atrium is just a quivering, not a pumping, that will not allow blood to flow normally, which increases the risk for blood clots that may cause a stroke.

Another potential complication of mitral regurgitation is pulmonary hypertension.

Treatment for mild mitral regurgitation may include anticoagulation medication. However, surgery to repair or replace is often needed.

Understanding your heart valve problem: Which solution may be right for you?

Walk through a step-by-step interactive guide explaining your valve issue and treatment options with helpful videos, text summaries and links along the way.

Understanding Heart Murmurs, Aortic and Mitral Valve Problems
Dr. Robert Bonow on Heart Valve Disease

Signs and symptoms

HVD can happen to anyone at any age, but the risk increases as you get older. Yet, many people do not recognize the symptoms in time. Lower your risk by downloading the American Heart Association's symptom tracker to help better manage your health.

Tips for the newly diagnosed

HVD is a relatively common condition affecting more than 8 million adults in the U.S. If you or someone you know has been recently diagnosed, download this infographic containing information on everything you should know about heart valves.

Treatment options

HVD is a condition where the heart valves don’t work as they should. HVD can usually be successfully treated if you know your treatment options.

Survivor and caregiver support

Managing HVD takes a team! Whether you’ve been diagnosed with a valve problem or care about someone who has,  we invite you to share your story on the American Heart Association's Support Network and remain connected with fellow survivors and caregivers.

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